These black, fractal-like patterns burned into this wood are called Lichtenberg Figures. They are created by painting the surface of the wood with a conductive solution of sodium bicarbonate and then applying 10,000v of electricity across the now partially conductive surface. As the high voltage electricity is discharged through the insulating wood, the electric field causes a physical breakdown of the bonds between the atoms in the insulator, creating a conductive path for free electrons to flow. The flowing current heats the wood and causes it to burn.
To create these patterns, you need a very high voltage, in the order of a few kilovolts. It almost goes without saying that this sort of voltage is extremely dangerous and will stop your heart instantly if you make a single mistake while using it. Only try to replicate these experiments if you fully understand the risks of high voltages and how to not die when playing with them!
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10,000v Wood Burning Experiments